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Biodiesel


Biodiesel is a clean-burning alternative fuel produced from renewable resources. Biodiesel is a fuel made from mixing vegetable oil and alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The fuel resulting from the chemical reaction is a good substitute for conventional diesel fuel. Byproducts of its production are biodiesel, fertilizer, glycerin, and recovered alcohol. Nothing is wasted. It can be used pure or “neat” (called B100) or, more typically, blended with petroleum diesel fuel in 5% (B5), 20% (B20), or other proportions before sale to the final user.

The use of biodiesel creates less environmental impacts than petroleum oils. Burning biodiesel reduces pollution and carbon output. Biodiesel is environmentally safer than petro-diesel.  Biodiesel has the highest energy balance (3.5) of any other fuel.

Biodiesel can be used in diesel engines (cars, trucks, busses, construction equipment), in jet engines, and, in heating and electricity generating systems

Biodiesel Advantages

Reducing our dependence on foreign petroleum.
•    Saving limited sources of fossil fuels.
Regardless of whose perspective we choose to believe on the future of coal, oil, and natural                                                                                   
gas, their supply is, ultimately, limited. Biodiesel can help us leverage our use of these fuels.
 by diesel fuel lifecycle inventory.



•    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
The burning of fossil fuels during the past century has dramatically increased the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other .greenhouse gases. That traps heat in our atmosphere. Their implications are hotly debated, but the levels of these gases have unquestionably risen at unprecedented rates in the context of geological time1. To the extent that biodiesel is truly renewable, it could help reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector.

•     Reducing air pollution and related health risks.
Biodiesel can play a role in reducing emissions of many air pollutants .These include particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), sulfur oxides (Sox), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and air toxics.

•    Improving our domestic economy.
Spending exorbitant amounts on import of petroleum influences our economy seriously. Biodiesel can help us shift this investment on domestically produced energy, and offers new energy-related markets to farmers

Biodiesel Analysis

Specifications

 

89/0 – 87/0

Density ( 150 c)      g/cm3

2/4-9/3

Viscosity ( 400 c)    mm2 / s

90%  360 0 c

Distillation     0 c

125 min – 130 min

Fp    0 c

s – 1, w – 2

C f pp

change

Cloud point

0/2 %

Carbon residue %

0/01 %

Sulphated   ash    %

250

Water   mg / kg

2

Cu corrosion max

6 – 9 hr

Oxidation   Stability    110 0c

52 – 58

Cetane num

0/2

Aside value    wgkoh / g

0/1

Methanol %

98/5

Ester content

0/2 – 0/1

Total glrcerine

7 - 5

Phosphorus  mg / kg

Biodiesel Applications

Biodiesel Applications:

1. Producing Hydrogen for Fuel-Cell Vehicles
2. Cleaning Up Oil Spills
3. Generating Electricity
4. Heating Your Home
5. Camping: Cooking and Illumination
6. Cleaning Up Tools and Grease
7. Diesel additive for lubricity enhancement
8. Removing Paint and Adhesives
9. Asphalt Cleanup Agent
10. Greasy Hand Cleaner
11. Crop Adjuvant
12. Screen Printing Ink Remover
13. Auto Wax Remover
14. Corrosion Preventative
15. Metal Working Lubricant

Biodiesel Global Consumption and Production

Global Biodiesel Production and Consumption:
 

•    The production and consumption of biodiesel, having grown on average by more than 50% per year for the last five years, also saw triple-digit growth rates in 2006.
•    Germany with 30 % share holds top honors for biodiesel consumption, but with the growing need for alternative fuels, and advent of other countries, this is diminishing.
•    The following diagram illustrates the distribution of consumption in worldwide markets.


 



•    Global biodiesel production is expanding rapidly, along with increasing production capacities.
•    Devoting a higher economical feasibility and increasing the production capacity in future, biodiesel can be supplied also by NIORDC (National Iranian Oil Refining and Distribution Company) which will lead to surmounting the shortage of (fossil) diesel in Iran.
•    Most of the countries support the companies that produce biodiesel since decrease in the amount of natural fuels such as crude oil will lead to increase of the diesel price.
•    Nowadays countries such as Germany, USA, France and other developed countries are the largest consumers of biodiesel.
•    The forecasting shows that until 2020 most of the diesel fuel consumption of eastern European countries will be replaced by biodiesel fuel. USA has planned to supply 25% of its diesel fuel from biodiesel.
•    Iran intends to supply 12% of its fuel from biodiesel. In this regard, Biodiesel Iran Kish Co. has established its plant and started this huge project in Qeshm Island to accelerate fulfilling this goal by 2011.
•    The only way to insulate the economy from petroleum price shocks is to lower the dependence on petroleum in the economy. The most practical and least disruptive strategy to achieve this objective is to use alternative fuels. Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel produced from oilseeds, primarily soy, and can be grown and produced domestically